Labradors are known as one of the most popular breeds in the world. They have been bred for centuries to provide excellent service dogs, companionship, and even pets. There are many different types of Labs: those with white markings (Pembroke), those with red markings (Standard), those with blue or green markings (Coburg), and others. All Labs fall under one breed classification called “Purebred.” Some of these Labradors are sold as purebred while some are not. Most of them come from the same parents but they look very different so it’s difficult to tell which ones are purebred and which aren’t.
The main difference between purebred Labradors and mixed breed Labradors is their coloration. Purebred Labs usually have a solid black coat with white spotting, sometimes with other colors such as blue or green. Mixed breed Labradors have any combination of the above colors.
In general, purebred Labradors are considered to be better than mixed breeders because they tend to produce healthier pups. However, there are still problems associated with mixing labradors with other breeds. For instance, purebred Labradors are prone to a number of different health issues including:
Hip dysplasia: the head of the femur doesn’t fit securely in the hip joint
Elbow Dysplasia: a problem with the growth and development of the bones and cartilage in the dog’s elbow joint
Eye Disorders: eye disorders ranging from juvenile cataracts to PRA, which causes a dog’s retina to gradually deteriorate
Skin Allergies: allergies cause pups to have dry, itchy skin
Labrador Retriever Height and Weight Guidelines
Despite their large size, Labs are generally healthy, robust dogs. However, as with every other dog breed, there are some physical restrictions which can cause problems. It’s important to be aware of these issues before you commit to buying a particular type of breed.
The following is a table which provides height and weight guidelines for all Labradors. Although the numbers are averages, they are just that – guidelines! There will always be some dogs that fall outside these average measurements. However, if you have a Lab whose height is significantly different from the numbers below (especially if it is much smaller than the range), you should consult a vet to check the health of your dog.
Breed Classification Size Range Weight Range General Large & muscular Male: 24 – 26 inches
Female: 23 – 25 inches 80 – 90 pounds Pointer Large Male: 22 – 24 inches 70 – 80 pounds Female: 21 – 23 inches 60 – 70 pounds Retriever Large Male: 21 – 23 inches 75 – 95 pounds Female: 20 – 22 inches 65 – 80 pounds
Labrador Coats and Colors
Although all Labs have the same basic shape, their coats come in a wide range of colors. There are three main basic categories of coat coloring in the Lab:
These three groups can be broken down into several different varieties, but this is where a lot of the disagreement over colors begins. For instance, all yellow Labradors have coats that are some variation of gold, however there are differences in shade from one Lab to another. Some kennel clubs will not recognize certain types of coat coloring as belonging to a particular breed. As a result, it can be difficult to get an exact color match when searching for a dog.
It is also important to remember that, despite their name, black Labradors are not always black! They can also have chocolate coats, which are sometimes referred to as dark golden retrievers. This causes even more confusion when looking for the perfect breed for you and your family!
Regardless of the color of your dog, it will still have a short, waterproof coat. Its tail and ears will also be shorter than those of a retriever from another breed. These are all physical characteristics that are true of all Labradors whatever their coloring may be.
Working for the Military: Using a Labrador Retriever
As their name suggests, this is a breed which was originally bred to help hunters retrieve shot game without having to approach too closely. This is a very important skill in the following types of hunting:
Duck hunting relies on the use of a retriever, as hunters would otherwise have to wade through water in order to retrieve their fallen prey. It’s not only inconvenient, but can also be dangerous as there are often fast-flowing rivers where ducks like to gather. A lab can do the job much more quickly and safely than a human.
Some hunters use dogs to drive game toward other hunters, so retrieving their prey after it has been shot is not an issue. These types of hunting don’t require specialized breeds, as a dog’s keen senses and speed are enough to chase down most animals. However, Labs are still popular with hunters in this category due to their strong swimming ability.
This is the practice of using dogs to find and flush out game from dense undergrowth or other places where they might be hiding. For this reason, the dog needs to have superior scenting ability and be comfortable in a wide range of environments. Labradors are commonly used in this way as they have the ability to adapt to most terrains.
Hunting ducks, geese and other waterfowl is the most popular method of using a retriever. However, these dogs are also adept at searching out and retrieving any type of game, which is why they are used by hunters in all three categories.
Hunting with a dog is often more of a social activity than a way to make money. It’s common for hunters to gather together in groups to share the expense of owning a dog and the surplus kill. As a result, most hunters take good care of their canine companions and make sure they have plenty of food.
Professional Hunting Dogs
It’s not unheard of for some hunters to rely on their dog to bring home the majority of their food. There are even competitions which test the abilities of these animals. Hunters compete to see who can find and shoot the most prey in a given period of time, with a trained lab retrieving each animal after it has been shot.
In these contests, the dog faces birds like geese and ducks, which take off flying when startled. They also have to be able to track a scent and drop the game at their owner’s feet once they have found it. This is known as a “soft mouth” touch, as the dog should grab the prey gently so it does not damage the bird or its feathers, which would reduce its value as a source of food.
Hunting with a dog takes a lot of hard work and training. You’ll need to live somewhere suitably rural, as you’ll be needing lots of space for your dog to practice hunting as well as somewhere to keep your prey until you can take it home. The canine is expected to hunt wild animals like deer, wild hogs and even coyotes and cougars! The dog also needs to be on a special diet to make sure it remains in good health and has superior senses.
If you want to train a dog for hunting, you’ll need to find a good breeder with pedigrees from successful hunters. These dogs can cost thousands of dollars, but their earnings will eventually pay for themselves.
To train the dog, you’ll need to take it out into the wilderness and encourage it to chase and hunt a range of animals. These include rabbits, squirrels, birds and even deer. The dog will usually catch its prey by the throat and kill it through suffocation or by breaking its neck.
The dog won’t eat its prey immediately, instead bringing it back to you so you can take the carcasses. You can then skin them and remove any unwanted bits of meat before preparing them for sale. You’ll need a license to sell the meat, but these are easy to get and not too expensive.
Labrador retrievers are strong, intelligent dogs that make excellent hunters. These hard-working canines have an excellent sense of smell and are easily trained. They have a soft mouth, which means they know how to grip prey animals without damaging their fur or feathers.
Pointers are a common hunting dog, mostly used for flushing out game such as birds or rabbits so that hunters can shoot them. They have excellent eyesight and know how to use it to locate prey that they can then track through their scent trails. Most of these dogs have a noticeably upright tail and perky demeanor.
Wolves are wild animals that live and hunt in packs. They mostly prey on deer, elk and other animals, but they aren’t averse to occasionally attack humans. In recent years, wolves have been spotted further and further east of the Rockies, where they traditionally haven’t been seen in ages. Reports say these wolves are growing in number and some have been sighted near small towns. Hunters have been hired by local governments to reduce the threat posed by these creatures.
Wolves make a return to the east! These animals were once prevalent throughout North America centuries ago, but since the rise of human civilization they have been pushed further and further into the wildest parts of the continent. Now, however, as the wilderness gets steadily nibbled away at by settlement and industry, the wolves are being forced to retreat again. Some of them are being seen in new places, such as the forests around the Great Lakes and even in New England.
These predators usually hunt in small packs, with an alpha leader that determines the group’s movements. The rest of the pack consists of the beta, who is the second in command and takes over if the alpha is killed, as well as various smaller roles filled by younger wolves. Packs can contain more than a dozen wolves, but usually number between three and six.
Their favored prey is the deer, which can be found in abundance in most of the areas wolves now roam. They also hunt in a similar fashion to the lions’ strategy, taking down the weak and young and leaving the strong to breed more prey for them. In fact, wolves were instrumental in keeping deer populations manageable until the rise of human hunting had a major impact on their numbers.
A pack of wolves can muster up a great deal of courage when they have to, and are more than willing to take on prey many times their size. This isn’t without reason, as a lone wolf is a dead wolf, and the pack only feeds as strong as its weakest member. Even the lowliest of beasts knows that it lives in a harsh world that doesn’t always afford second chances.
Even the youngest wolf can take down creatures many times their size. Wolves rely on jumping, biting and tearing at their opponents with a fury and speed that most other predators can’t match. As long as they’re not fighting some larger predator that’s bigger than them, or an armed human, wolves are more than capable of taking down anything.
Wolves have an excellent sense of smell. They can detect the scent of potential prey many miles away and can smell where other creatures have entered their territory.
Wolves are typically nocturnal, though they will hunt whenever they need to. They rest during the day in a den carved out from the side of a hill or in a shallow cave. The entire pack, including the pups, crowd into this den to sleep. Wolves are very social animals and only attack humans when they are desperate or when provoked.
Wolves are primarily pack animals. They hunt in groups and raise their young together. While they are still aggressive predators that humans should not underestimate, they can be reasoned with if one approaches them calmly and peacefully.
The sudden appearance of wolves in the forests shouldn’t come as a major surprise. Native to the forests of the old world, they were hunted out by humans who saw them as dangerous predators that needed to be destroyed. With little human interference nowadays, their numbers have swelled to the point where they have regained their former territory.
Wolves typically hunt in large packs. This makes them a considerable threat, as even the largest prey is not guaranteed to stand a chance if it finds itself surrounded by a dozen wolves. They prefer to attack at night, and will often try to cut off any means of escape or surround their prey before attacking. They can be found throughout the forests of the former Yugoslavia, typically wherever there are large deer or boar populations. While they normally keep to their own devices, they will sometimes attack human settlements if deprived of other prey.
While certainly not as pleasant as a human or an un-mutated dog, most wolves will not attack unless provoked. They are wild animals that will typically prefer to live and let live. That being said, if one does attack you, you should defend yourself.
Wolves typically travel in packs, with even the weakest of them (which still tend to be fairly large and dangerous) are more than a match for an unarmed human.
Deer typically live in small herds, led by a dominant male that protects them from enemies. They have a tendency to graze in the mornings and evenings, browsing on the leaves of bushes and trees or eating grass. During the midday hours they will normally wander less, opting to rest in the shade of a tree or elsewhere out of the sun.
The appearance of deer can be a welcome sight for some and an unwelcome one for others. Hunters will often follow their trails in hopes of finding a deer or other prey. Butchers, farmers and others that rely on animals for their livelihood will often encourage their presence, as it indicates a thriving ecosystem that supports not just them but the animals as well.
The main danger that deer pose to humans are the possibility of transmission of blood borne diseases such as tuberculosis, which deer seem particularly prone to.
Deer are prey animals and will generally flee from potential threats. They are nimble and fast, able to bound away from most threats. While the worst that they normally do is chew on garden plants, there have been reports of more aggressive deer damaging property.
This small rodent has adapted quite well to the post-apocalypse. It has a keen sense of hearing and smell, which allow it to avoid most predators. It also chews on crops such as corn and grasses, making it something of a pest to humans.
Rats are attracted to food and will feast on almost anything, whether it be organic or inorganic.
These small but tough rodents have thrived after the apocalypse for a number of reasons. The first is their lack of dependencies on other organisms for survival: they can find all the water they need from plants, and sustenance from organic waste. Additionally, they can find shelter almost anywhere.
The most dangerous thing about rats, however, is the diseases they carry. Normally, rats prefer to run away from humans, but if their colony is disturbed, they will attack en masse. The black death, the plague that wiped out almost half of the world’s population in the 14th century, was caused by rats and their fleas.
There are also rumors of giant rats in the Metro, mutated by the radiation from the nuclear blast. Such rumors are common are almost always unfounded, as radiation does not produce such an effect.
While dogs can often be found in the company of humans, most have been left to their own devices in the post-apocalypse, only rarely receiving help from those who still treat their pets like a beloved member of the family. For the most part, they have reverted to their more natural state, and serve their own purposes in the harsh post-apocalyptic world.
Dogs are predators by nature, and despite being domesticated for thousands of years, most dogs have retained these instincts. They hunt smaller animals, such as rodents or birds, and larger ones like deer. While once they were bred to assist humans in hunting or protection, there are no humans around to direct them to do so any longer. As a result, they do it for their own purposes.
Some survivor communities do keep dogs as pets, though these are more for their companionship than anything else: dogs tend to be on the smaller side in the post-apocalypse, as there is less food to go around. Due to inbreeding and the loss of control by humans, most have not kept up their strong instincts.
Sight hounds, such as greyhounds, are used to chase down prey. They are some of the few dogs to have kept their natural instincts more than most.
Faster than the average human, and with a strong sense of smell, these creatures make excellent trackers, especially when following a scent left by a human or animal. It’s not uncommon for them to be used as scouts, messengers, ortrackers.
Dogs are social creatures that rely on humans for food and shelter, as well as affection. Many dogs separated from their owners after the apocalypse quickly died due to loss of morale. However, those who were able to find other dogs to become part of maintain a strong survival instinct, and are more likely to survive than truly wild dogs.
Jackals are scavengers, following behind larger predators like bears, wolves or humans to eat whatever they displace. They are very small, but fearless. Despite this, they pose little threat to humans, who have learned to kill them on sight due to the threat they pose to livestock and game.
Jackals are drawn to urban areas in the hope of finding easy food. With no predators themselves, they pose a threat to other scavengers as they eat their fill and then some, leaving nothing for others. They also prey on small animals that may be used as pets or food by survivors.
Jackals are very small and fast, making them hard to hit on purpose. They are also very cowardly, so it is possible the jackal you see one day will be a human the next, fleeing at the first sign of trouble.
Rabbits are herbivores that were introduced to Australia by humans. They have no natural predators there, and so over time they have lost their natural fear, as well as becoming accustomed to eating a wide range of plants.
In the post-apocalypse, rabbits are one of the most common sources of food, due to their size and the fact that they breed so quickly. Their meat is high in protein and low in fat, as well as being quite tasty. It is not uncommon for a survivor to have a “hare brained” idea, and many have found it a lot easier staying alive thanks to these little guys.
There are few animals more dangerous than the average human. These are the ones you have to look out for.
Humans are extremely vicious and aggressive now, with no civilization or laws to hold them back. Most humans will be armed, whether it be with a gun, a knife or a rock. They may even have military training.
You wouldn’t think it to look at them, but humans are one of the most dangerous threats of the post-apocalyptic world.
Gangs are groups of people that have banded together for mutual protection and survival. They vary in size and make-up, but every single one is dangerous and bloodthirsty.
The majority of gangs were originally formed for mutual protection against other, larger groups, as well as other dangers. Most will be made up of a loose association of people with similar professions or backgrounds, such as soldiers or police.
Marriage is a funny thing in the apocalypse. Some people have resorted to polygamy in order to keep their family whole, while many widows and widowers end up re-marrying in order to protect each other.
You can guess which types of relationships tend to work out a lot better.
Disease is one of the biggest killers in the apocalypse. With no doctors or medical aid of any kind, someone so much as coughs in the wrong direction could be death sentence.
Sources & references used in this article: